Like other muon neutrino experiments, MiniBooNE uses a beam that comprises muon neutrinos with a range of energies. Since neutrinos have no electric charge, scientists have no “filter” that allows them to select neutrinos with a specific energy.
MiniBooNE scientists, however, came up with a clever way to identify the energy of a subset of the muon neutrinos hitting their detector. They realized that their experiment receives some muon neutrinos that have the exact energy of 236 million electronvolts (MeV). These neutrinos stem from the decay of kaons at rest about 86 meters from the MiniBooNE detector emerging from the aluminum core of the particle absorber of the NuMI beamline, which was built for other experiments at Fermilab.
Energetic kaons decay into muon neutrinos with a range of energies. The trick is to identify muon neutrinos that emerge from the decay of kaons at rest. Conservation of energy and momentum then require that all muon neutrinos emerging from the kaon-at-rest decay have to have exactly the energy of 236 MeV.
Paper (PRL): First Measurement of Monoenergetic Muon Neutrino Charged Current Interactions – PDF
A travelling scientist is shown demonstrating the formation of a vacuum by withdrawing air from a flask containing a white cockatoo, though common birds like sparrows would normally have been used. […] The bird will die if the demonstrator continues to deprive it of oxygen, and Wright leaves us in doubt as to whether or not the cockatoo will be reprieved. The painting reveals a wide range of individual reactions, from the frightened children, through the reflective philosopher, the excited interest of the youth on the left, to the indifferent young lovers concerned only with each other.
See what happens at CERN during the Year-End Technical Stop (YETS – PDF), from 4 December 2017 until today when accelerator hibernation ends. Tomorrow hardware commissioning begins which will culminate in the restart of the LHC in early April (PDF).
String Theory Explained – What is The True Nature of Reality?
This is probably the cutest video I watched in weeks. You won’t get the answer to the question, but will get a nice explanation of why String Theory is useful in the way to decipher the deepest secrets of nature.
For a while, some physicists worked on a theory unifying the other forces with both the force of gravity and the film “Gravity,” but even after Alfonso Cuarón was held in a deep underground chamber of water for 10^31 years he refused to sell his film to Disney.